Welcome to Shivam Agro Farm

ShivamAgro Farm is organically maintained goat farm.
We promise to give best services to our customers.


Welcome to Shivam Agro Farm

ShivamAgro Farm is organically maintained goat farm.
We promise to give best services to our customers.


Welcome to Shivam Agro Farm

ShivamAgro Farm is organically maintained goat farm.
We promise to give best services to our customers.


Welcome to Shivam Agro Farm

ShivamAgro Farm is organically maintained goat farm.
We promise to give best services to our customers.


About Us

Shivam Agro Farm is based in Borigarka, Durg district of Chhattisgarh. We have done our detailed market research and feasibility studies on goat farming. Shivam Agro Farm is well positioned to become one of the leading goat farms in India. We have put process and strategies in place that will help us employ best practices when it comes to livestock breeding / goat farming processes.

ShivamAgro Farm is one of the finest Goat Farm in Chhattisgarh.The Farm is established by Sandeep Patel (BE Mechanical Engineering). Currently, having experience in the technical industry and worked in various parts of India, it was his dream to bring the technology to the rural area. The farm is built using the best amenities for the goats and employs many residents to support the rural development

Shivam Agro Farm

Shivam Agro Farm is organically maintained agriculture land. Since 2019 with intense research and adapting the natural and scientific approach Shivam Agro Farm has come up with the superior quality and healthy breeds, Milk, and high-quality manure. With proper approach and management (the rule of SIMA) Goat farming is commercially viable and profitable business and it is proved by Shivam Agro Farm.

Our Vision

We are working for the welfare of the goat farming sector. Developing the Goat farming as a large, well organised, commercially viable Industry at National level with collective efforts from Agriculture Farmers, Goat Farmers, Business Resources, Market Resources and Public. We are also striving hard to bring small and marginal goat farmers especially women into main stream of development..

Our Mission

  • Hygienic and quality production of breeds and products
  • Adapting standard, natural, scientific methods along with the modern technology
  • Providing the best service to the end users
  • Provide proper practical training
  • Organise Workshops and Seminars on Goat farming practices, trends, Market Analysis etc.
  • Develop the Network among Farmers, Market resources and Goat farming aspirants
We are the leading goat suppliers in Maharashtra, Orissa, Gujarat and rest of the India.

See Our Natural Products Our Products

  • product_1 breed_icn


    Healthy, well grown and active Osmanabadi Goats for breed and meat purpose.

  • product_2 milk_icn


    Hygienic, mechanically processed fresh and Pasteurized Goat milk available in 500ml, 1000ml packet.

  • product_3 manure_icn


    Well cultured, natural collection of pellets and urine of Goats is the best manure and available in packets.

Services We Offer Our Services



We provide you the Pureline breeding Osmanabadi goats at reasonable prices. These Osmanabadi goats are selected by the veterinary doctors. You will get the best of female goats(does),which yields plenty of milk(1-2ltr per day) and kids (4-8 per yr).

The best part of these Osmanabadi goats is that, they can accommodate easily in any part of the country, they are disease resistant’s so that they provide you huge profit in lesser time. They eat any farm fodder, vegetables, grass, pulp of pulses which are usually thrown by the farmers as waste part. Mortality rate of kids and does is negligible when they are vaccinated properly. Start your goat farm business with these specially selected Osmanabadi goats and earn handsome profit. This breed is considered useful both for meat and milk.

All our goats are healthy and vaccinated which are certified by reputed veterinary doctors.

Goat Farm Training

Training details /Information of training:

  • Training duration - 3 Days
  • Boarding and Lodging Facility: At your own
  • Limited Seats (only 8-10 Trainees per batch)
  • Lights on myths and failures of Goat Farming
  • Information on critical and sensitive things which should be taken care during breeding, kidding, milking land and crop cultivation as well
  • Reasons for the mortality of animals and proper measurements to avoid the mortality
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Goat Farm Training :

Complete practical training on the following:

  • Available Breeds around the India and selection of the best animals from those breeds
  • Quarantining and acclamation of animals when brought from the different geographic locations to the farm
  • During training trainees can witness delivery and kidding process practically
  • Information on complete cycle of kidding,milking,breeding and mating of animals
  • Continuous kidding plan for 365 days
  • Information on food and medicine along with timing, method and quantity
  • Information on mechanized milking, pasteurisation, paneer making and transporting the milk
  • Use of manure, manure collection and transport
  • Sick animal treatment - trainees can witness at least one sick animal in the farm and participate in the treatment process
  • Information and practical exposure to the 365-day crop cultivation
  • Information on proper Infrastructure for animals’ shelter, grazing, delivery, kidding, milking, as well warehouse for food and medicine storage


Package of Common Management Practices Recommended for Goat rearing Modern and well-established scientific principles, practices and skills should be used to obtain maximum economic benefits from goat rearing. Some of the recommended practices are given here under:

  • Goats Housing management
  • Construct shed on dry and properly raised ground.
  • Avoid water-logging, marshy areas.
  • In temperate Himalayan region the floor may be made of wood.
  • The shed should be 10 ft. high and should have good ventilation.
  • Bucks should be housed in individual pens.
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Consultancy :

  • In low lying and heavy rainfall areas the floors should be preferably elevated.
  • Provide proper shade and cool drinking water in summer.
  • Dispose of dung and urine properly.
  • Give adequate space for the animals.
  • Avoid over stocking or crowding.

Goat feeding management

Ensure Bushes/shrubs for browsing of animals. As an alternative to above, supply of cultivated fodder from own farm or from surrounding farms may be ensured. Offer roughages adlib.As a thumb rule 2/3rds of the energy requirements should be met through roughages. Half of the roughages should be leguminous green fodders and rest half should be grasses/tender tree leaves.

In the absence of good quality green fodders, concentrates must be considered to replace them. Kids should be fed colostrums up to 5 days of age. Later on, they can be put on Kid starter rations.

Green leguminous fodders should be offered adlib. to kids from 15 days onwards. Provide salt and water to kids at all times. Additional concentrates should be given to bucks and does during breeding season. Care should be taken to meet the nutrient requirements as recommended.

Protection Goats against diseases

  • Be on the alert for signs of illness such as reduced feed intake, fever, abnormal discharge or unusual behavior.
  • Consult the nearest veterinary aid centre for help if illness is suspected.
  • Protect the animals against common diseases.
  • In case of outbreak of contagious diseases, immediately segregate the sick animals from healthy one and take necessary disease control measures.
  • Deworm the animals regularly.
  • Examine the faces of adult animals to detect eggs of internal parasites and treat the animals with suitable drugs.
  • Provide clean and uncontaminated feed and water for minimizing the health disorders.
  • Strictly follow the recommended vaccine schedule as given in Vaccination Program Section.

Goat Breeding Care

  • It should be planned to obtain 3 kidding in 2 years period by adopting optimal management conditions.
  • For every 25 does one buck should be provided in one breeding season.
  • Breed the animals 12 hours after the onset of the first symptoms of heat for maximum conception.
  • Unreadable animals must be examined thoroughly as directed by veterinary doctor for prompt elimination of causes for anoestrus or cull them if necessary.

Care of Kids

Almost immediately after birth, the kids, if healthy and strong, are on their legs and make attempts for their mother's teats. Failure to reach the teats, however, is of no consequence, because the kids do not require nourishment for several hours after birth. If more than one kids is born, it may be necessary especially when they are very young, to ensure that the smallest of them gets its due share of milk, because it may be prevented from doing so by the stronger kids. In case the udder is too full, a proportion of the milk should be drawn from as otherwise the weight of the udder will cause discomfort to the animals. As soon as there are teats should be held by the hand and pressed into their mouths. Once they have drawn a little of the milk, it will not be long before they take to the normal methods of suckling.

Generally, male kids are heavier than the female kids. At birth, a male kid of the Beetle breed will weigh about 3 kg. and a female kid about 2-3 kg. For the first three or four days after kidding, goat's milk like cow’s milk is considered unsuitable for human consumption. This milk, the so-called colostrums, is yellowish in appearance and is viscous' it coagulates on boiling. It is nature's first provision of food for the new born and it must be given to the kids whether they are to be reared on the goat or artificially. Colostrums acts as a laxative and, because of its large contents of vitamin A and serum globulin, it confers immunity against certain diseases.

When about two weeks old, kids begin to nibble green food or dry fodder, and it would be well to see that small quantities of these are within their easy reach at this time. It is also important that kids are allowed plenty of open air and sunlight. In the hot weather, this can best be done by keeping them in an enclosure build round a tree so that they may also be provided with shade. The enclosure should be large enough to allow them plenty of exercise.

At the age of 2 to 3 months, the suckling may be practically discontinued and at four months the kids should be completely weaned because by this time they will become fit like the older goats to eat solid food, although they may as well be allowed to suckle a little longer.

Male kids, unless they are required for breeding purposes, should be castrated at the age of 2 to 3 months for it has been proved that castration improved the quality of meat. Otherwise, they should be kept separated from the female kids.

The rearing of kids may be either natural or by hand rearing and each has its advantages and disadvantages. In India, it is the natural method that is usually practiced, and this consists of in leaving the kid to take what amount of milk it can obtain from its mother. Hand rearing is resorted to when weaning is practiced or when the goat dies. There are two methods of hand rearing' one consists of feeding the kid with a bottle and the other is feeding it off the pail. Both methods are learned by them easily, but bottle feeding is to be preferred because the saliva that is produced during the process of suckling the milk aids digestion. Kids will also readily take to feeding on a foster mother when they are put on her teats.

Male kids for breeding should be fed and handled in much the same way as doe kids, except for the fact that they require a little more milk as well as gram ration than the female kids on account of the larger size they have to attain. Kids with body size below normal should be discarded, as they seldom prove good breeders when mature. They should be fed well at all ages to keep them in good condition, but excessive feeding should be avoided, particularly when they are old because, if fat, they become sluggish and are slow breeders. Where the animal is unduly fat, its grain ration should be cut. At one year, a buck should receive 1.8 kg of grain mixture the allowance being increased by 50 per cent during the breeding season. A liberal amount of fodder should be given. An average of 7 to 8 kg. of green fodder per day should be adequate for a full grown Jamunapari buck when entirely stall fed.


The marketable product of goat farming includes the fattened kids, manure, culled animals. Marketing avenues for the above products are slaughter houses and individual meat consuming customers and agriculture farms. Therefore, availability of either slaughtering facilities or traders who will purchase live animals should be ensured to convert the fatteners into wholesome meat and meat products. Further, demand for manure from nearby agriculture farms must also be ensured.

Goat Care and Breeding

Goat care is a serious responsibility. Goats need companionship. Hence, it is better to keep two goats or have a sociable animal to give a single goat company. Goats need spacious shelters, which is free from dampness and drafts. There should be good ventilation so that the freshness of the air maintained inside the shelter.

Barns with three sides and pitched roof are ideal for all weather condition. Fences for the shelter or the shelter compound should be taller as goats tend to climb. For bedding place, dry straw or dry shavings of wood. Make sure that wild animals or dogs could not get inside the shelter, as those animals can harm goats.

There requires special care regarding the diet of the goats. Goats do not prefer soiled food. It’s better to feed goats with forages like browse and hay, grain-based feeds as well as nutritional supplements.

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They are quite sensitive to sudden changes to the diet. Bring changes to the feed program regarding timing of feeding, feeding type as well as feeding amount, in a gradual manner.

Water offered for the goats must be clean and give it in clean containers. On average goats might consume two to five gallons of water every day and this depends on the breed as well as size of goats. During warm weather, it’s good to offer water at shorter intervals and during cold weather hot water is advisable.

Access to veterinarian at regular basis will help in detecting any illness or infections. If goats show any changes in their food habits or some other routine, it is better to have checked up. Trim the hoofs of the goats regularly and medicate it if any infection is there. Put flycatchers inside the shelter, as during warm weather flies tend to disturb goats. Shave the goat during summer if the locality is hotter. Worm the goats using paste wormer at least once a year.

The season stretching from latter part of summer to earlier part of winter is good for goat breeding. There are eighteen to twenty-one estrus cycle for the does. Goat breeders make use of Natural breeding or artificial insemination.

Does' become fertile at a very young age of two months. Healthy does and goats of seven months or older can breed and give healthy kids, most of the time twins. It takes five months for a doe to give birth.

Goat cheese making is becoming popular these days as goat cheese has good nutritional value. For Goat cheese making, goat milk, buttermilk, ladle, fresh lemon juice, colander, cheesecloth etc are required.

For making goat cheese, mix all required ingredients well together in the bowl. After pouring it to pan, heat it up to 170 degrees, and then cool it for twelve hours naturally after covering it with plastic wrap.

Drain the cheese mixture-using strainer after placing cheesecloth. Once drained remove the cheesecloth and then store it in container that is airtight. Making goat cheese is possible at homes. Overall Goats are valuable animals. Be its milk or skin or fat or meat or excreta, everything has value.


Goat Shelter / Housing :

For efficient production in dairy goats, good health and comfort to the animal is a must. To achieve this, housing of goats is important. The house should protect the goats from sun, rain and cold nights. To prevent water logging the floor of the pen should be raised by about 1 to 1.5 meters from the ground floor. Slotted floors help in easy collection of manure and urine. To protect the goats from cold air a wall of at least 1.5-meter high should be built. If the floor is made of clay it should be compact and sloppy towards one corner.

Goats come originally from the open mountains and do not like being closely confined. They like plenty of fresh air and love a clean and dry sleeping place. Under village conditions, goats generally do not require any special housing. They should, however, be protected against bad weather and wild animals. Under farm and city conditions, it is economical to provide special housing for goats.

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Goat Shelter / Housing


Goats come originally from the open mountains and do not like being closely confined. They like plenty of fresh air and love a clean and dry sleeping place. Under village conditions, goats generally do not require any special housing. They should, however, be protected against bad weather and wild animals. Under farm and city conditions, it is economical to provide special housing for goats. Several pens may be made according to the number of goats.

In case of milky goats, separate pens for lambs should be constructed at the very adjacent of the dam's pen. The partition between the mother and the kids should be such that both can see each other. The buck should be housed away from the milking goats. The house should have plenty of fresh air, sunshine and well drained. The materials for constructing goat's house may be of anything like bamboo, wooden or pukka.

Efficient Goat Shelter for Hot Zones

Scientists at the Central Institute for Research on goats (CIRG) at Farah near Mathura have designed an effective and low-cost housing for goats. The high-roof shed covered with fire-proof material has been found to be cooler than housings made using conventional reeds, hay thatches and asbestos sheet.

The scientists have established that a shed with its main axis running east-west provides a cooler environment underneath, and it was the best for hot-arid conditions. The open type shed has an advantage over the closed ones. The width and size of the shelter vary with the animal size, and for goats and sheep the optimum has been determined to be five to six meters. The length will depend on the strength of the flock or herd.

The height of the shelter in the hot regions should be between three and five meters, and a height less than this will result in poor ventilation. The heat loss through radiation to cool sky is also curtailed in low roof shelter. The shape of the roof can either be flat, sloped or 'A' shaped. The A-type roof has definite advantages over the rest in the hot region, as one side of the roof will save the other half from direct solar radiation by casting its shadow. This helps in cutting down heat gain from the roof of the shelter.

Of the different materials used for the roof, the fire-proof tar-coated type has been found quite effective. Shelter surroundings should be kept as green as possible to avoid heating up of the shed. For good ventilation and to protect the animals from the direct hit of hot winds, the eastern and western sides of the sheds should be covered up to a meter height. The roof and eastern and western sides of the sheds should be covered up to a meter height. The roof and walls should be white outside and colored inside. Painting the sidewalls white outside reduces the surface temperature inside by 12 to 22 Degree Centigrade when compared to unpainted walls in places where temperatures remain above 37 degree centigrade.

Water can be sprayed on the floor and roof of shelters periodically to reduce heat load on the animals during peak summer. The scientists have also prepared the details of shed under loose housing system. Adult breeding goats or nannies are to be housed in groups of 60 to 80 goats. Milch goats should not be allowed to run together in their house for getting roughages and concentrates. They should be fed in separate stalls or in a group of eight to ten does.

Goats in an advanced stage of pregnancy, at least four to seven days before kidding, must be housed individually. Kids from one week after birth to sub-adult stages should be kept at the rate of 20 to 25 per shed. By making suitable partitions in a larger shed, unweaned, weaned but immature and near-matured kids can be housed separately. Drought-free small rooms to house 15 to 20 newly born kids are essential to raise a good breeding stock. The bucks should be kept away from the milking goats, in small groups of 10 or 15, Isolation sheds to keep sick and diseased animals must be provided far away from the rest of the sheds.

Besides housing, other facilities to store concentrate feed, medicine, dipping tanks and related material ought to be provided. Feeding and water troughs should be included within the housing shelters and care taken to ensure feed and water supply all the time.

Sweet Haylage

A new Feed technology Haylage is prepared out of green forage to preserve it for long time. It is prepared by leaving the green forage cut on the field to dry its moisture level to 55% and bailed out to store. In some cases, it is packed in air tight packs so that its freshness will be maintained. In order to densify to reduce the volume hydraulic press is used. Such densified bales are packed air tight. There sino advantage of enhancing the nutritive value in such preparations. Therefore, a new feed technology is evolved to produce a new feed’s Sweet haylages.

The sweet haylage is prepared by using dry hay mix with sugar/sugar syrup/jaggary and pro biotics, enzymes and water to maintain the moisture to 55% and pH 6. The above product is pressed hard and packed air tight. It is then left for curing. During this time the fibre particularly the ADF gets degraded to more digestible carbohydrates, Protein gets protected and over all palatability of the feed.

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Sweet Haylage

The sweet haylage is prepared by using dry hay mix with sugar/sugar syrup/jaggary and pro biotics, enzymes and water to maintain the moisture to 55% and pH 6. The above product is pressed hard and packed air tight. It is then left for curing. During this time the fibre particularly the ADF gets degraded to more digestible carbohydrates, Protein gets protected and over all palatability of the feed increases because of sugar and aroma. The metabolisable energy of the hay increases and thus the fibre feed becomes better forage for dairy cows to replace the green forages.

In UAE the availability of green forage is scarce. All the dairy farms are totally depending upon hay and fibre feeds to meet the minimum NDF: ADF of 20: 28. In order to commercialize the feed the following items could be incorporated into the formula. 1. Alfalfa hay 2. Wheat bran/dust 3. Soya husk 4. Canola husk 5. Dry grass 6. Any other fibrous feeds available

The process plant comprises of the following 1. Grass chopper 2. Syrup coater/mixer 3. Hydraulic press 450 psi 4. Shrink packing/plastic bagging

The packed product could be transported and stored with an advice to be fed after 30 days of treatment.

In UAE, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain where green fodder and fiber feeds are very expensive the above technology would be a boon for dairy industry. Once the above product is started to manufacture further development on the technology could be tried out.


Fed Farming

Stall Fed Farming

STALL-FED GOATS can ideally fit into the intensive integrated farming system (IIFS). The small animals are the most efficient converters of farm and crop residues into excellent organic manure. Several farmers have successfully run stall-fed goat farms, and they have found that such an integrated farming venture was more productive and profitable as well.

Goats relish the stalks and residues of most of the nutritious cereals, and they do well particularly when mixed with green fodder such as grasses and subabul. Special goat-feeds can be formulated using farm-grown millets and oil cakes. As the cost of the feed and also the labor gets distributed over other farming operations, the actual cost of raising the goats becomes minimal.

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Fed Farming

Goats relish the stalks and residues of most of the nutritious cereals, and they do well particularly when mixed with green fodder such as grasses and subabul. Special goat-feeds can be formulated using farm-grown millets and oil cakes. As the cost of the feed and also the labor gets distributed over other farming operations, the actual cost of raising the goats becomes minimal. The rich goat manure is ideal for fertilizing fishponds and all other crops. It is also a good base material for vermicomposting.

Goat farming needs less capital when compared with dairying, and the animals can be raised in small farms. The floor space requirement per adult animal is about one square meter. Stall-fed goat farming is an ideal occupation for the small, marginal and landless agricultural laborers. A properly fed and managed milky goat will yield at least as much milk (on average two liters per day) as low yielding desi cows. The she-goat will deliver 2-4 kids at each parturition after a short gestation period of 150 days.

A few exotic goats such as Saanen, Toggenburg, Angora, Anglo-Nubian, British Alpine, French Alpine have been found to be well adapted to Indian conditions, and they are crossed with superior Indian breeds to get good progeny. The popular Indian breeds are Sirohi, Jamnapari, Surti, Tellicherry, Beetal, Malabari, Barbari and Gujarati. The milky-type animals are ideal for integrated farming system.

A small shed with good cross ventilation is enough to keep a small herd. A deep-litter system with paddy husk and groundnut shell as bedding material is ideal for raising goats. The biological activity in the litter keeps the housing warm in winter and cool in summer. The bedding material will last for about six months, and after that it will have to be changed.

The bedding material collects all the dung and urine efficiently and it is found to be an enriched organic manure. An adult goat will add about a tone of rich manure to the farm every year.

Though the goats are robust animals and are resistant to many diseases, they need to be vaccinated against foot and mouth disease, rinder pest and tetanus regularly. The animals need to be de-wormed at least twice a year to keep in good stead.

Goat farming with stall-feeding can be managed in small yards just like poultry, and it will prove to be an economical and rewarding enterprise for the small, marginal and landless farmers.

Exercise Paddock For Stall Fed Goats When goats are reared in stall fed system it is of utmost importance to provide the exercise paddock. An enclosure measuring 12m x18 m is adequate for 100 to 125 goats. Some shade trees may be planted to provide adequate comfort in summer. The animals should be allowed to roam about in the enclosed area for some fixed period to have sufficient fresh air and exercise.

Kidding Management

When to kid and when to wean?

Kidding season and weaning age depend on several management and marketing factors. However, kids born in very late winter and early spring (March-early April), when grazed with their mothers on lush, high quality small grains or cool-season forages, will grow faster and will be healthier than kids born during the heat of late spring and early summer when forages mature, and worm burdens increase.

Letting the kids nurse and graze with their mothers for as long as the doe stays in good enough body condition so as not to impair the success of its next breeding season is a sound management practice that will ensure rapid growth of the goat kids.

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Kidding Management

Weaning is a very stressful period for kids and coccidia infestations generally show up at weaning. It is important to frequently observe weaned kids. Kids showing signs of coccidia infestation should be treated immediately; otherwise they will dehydrate and die. Coccidia can damage the lining of the intestines and if not treated properly surviving kids may not grow to reach their normal size and production potential.

Nutrition of Newborn Kids

Colostrum is the first milk produced after parturition. Colostrum contains a high content of immunoglobulin (antibodies), vitamin A, minerals, fat and other sources of energy. Antibodies are proteins which help the goat kid fight diseases.

The ability of kids to resist diseases is greatly affected by the timing of colostrum intake and the quantity and quality of the colostrum fed. Reports from cattle indicate that if left alone, 25% of the young do not nurse within 8 hours and 10 to 25% do not get sufficient amounts of colostrum. Colostrum should be ingested or bottle-fed (in case of weak kids) as soon as kids have a suckling reflex.

In cases of extremely weak kids, they should be tube-fed. The producer must be certain that all newborn kids get colostrum soon after birth (within the first hour after birth, and certainly within the first 6 hours) because the percentage of antibodies found in colostrum decreases rapidly after parturition.

It is crucial that the antibodies in colostrum be consumed before the kids suck on dirty, pathogen-loaded parts of its mother or stall. In addition, the ability of the newborn kid to absorb antibodies also decreases rapidly 24 hours after birth. Newborn kids should ingest 10% of their body weight in colostrum during the first 24 hours of life for optimum immunity.

The extra colostrum produced by high lactating does during the first 24 hours following kidding can be frozen for later use when needed. Only first milking from healthy animals should be frozen for later feeding, and the colostrum from older animals that have been on the premises for several years is typically higher in antibody content against endemic pathogens than is colostrum from first fresheners.

Revaccination against tetanus and enterotoxemia (over-eating disease) 2 to 4 weeks before the kidding date is commonly used to improve the protective value of the colostrum against these conditions. Ice cube trays are ideal containers: once frozen, cubed colostrum can be stored in larger containers and the trays used for another batch. Ice cubes are the perfect size for newborn kids, thus thawed colostrum is always fresh, and wastage reduced to a minimum.

It is recommended to thaw colostrum either at room temperature or at a fairly low temperature. Colostrum should never be overcooked during the thawing process.


Fodder For Goats

Under Stall Fed Conditions

If the goats are completely stall-fed, they should be given around 3-4 kg of green fodder, 1-2 kg of dry fodder and 200 -250 grams of readymade seeds as concentrates. If the goats are partly stall-fed and partly free range, then 50 per cent of the above quantities should be fed in the stall. After 10-12 days supplementary special kid ration can be given but milk feeding should continue up to 2.5 to 3.0 months of age. Simultaneously, kids should be given very succulent green fodder like maize and lucern. Adult goats should be given green leaves of shrubs like Anjan, Subabhul, Babulbeans, Shevari, and Pangara.

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Fodder For Goats

Makingof Silage

(Preservation of Green Forage Crop) Silage is the feedstuff resulting from the preservation of green forage crops by acidification. The first phase is the aerobic phase, which occurs in the presence of oxygen (air). The oxygen that is present in the forage, as it is placed into storage, is consumed by the plant material through the process of respiration. Under aerobic conditions, plant enzymes and microorganisms consume oxygen and burn up plant water-soluble carbohydrates (sugars), producing carbon dioxide and heat. The first phase should be as brief as possible to maintain the quality of the silage. Excessive aerobic fermentation reduces the energy content of the silage and may cause heat damage to proteins.

The second anaerobic phase begins when available oxygen is used up by respiration and aerobic bacteria cease to function. Anaerobic bacteria begin to multiply, and the fermentation process begins. The lactobacilli produce lactic acid from the fermented plant material which lowers the pH of the silage. Fermentation completely ceases after three to four weeks when the pH becomes so low that all microbial growth is inhibited.

The ensiling and storage system's main functions are to exclude air during the ensiling process and to prevent air from entering the silage during storage.

Limiting air present in the silage will enhance feed quality and reduce spoilage.


Horizontal Silos : There are two types of horizontal silos - below ground level (i.e., pit or trench) and above ground (i.e. bunker and stack). The main advantage of horizontal silos is their low capital cost and suitability to feeding livestock in widely separated pens.

Trench Silos : Are usually dug into a slope with the "downhill" end open for drainage and access.

Bunker Silos Are used in flat areas unsuitable for trench silos. Above-ground walls are constructed using concrete, earth or wood and braced with timbers or concrete buttresses.

Are used in flat areas unsuitable for trench silos. Above-ground walls are constructed using concrete, earth or wood and braced with timbers or concrete buttresses.

The correct height and width to make a silo depends on daily silage usage based on the removal of a minimum of 10 cm (4 in.) per day from the silage face. Removing less silage leads to spoilage or freezing problems. The silo should be as high as possible to minimize silo width, thereby minimizing surface spoilage. Increased silage height aids in packing.

Silo Length depends on the total silage needed annually.

Capacities are dependent on average densities of silage. Silage density increases with increasing moisture content, shorter cut length packed silage depth and amount of packing.


a) Using a Microwave Oven

  • Cut a representative cross-section of forage from the windrow.x
  • Cut into 0.6 cm (1/4 in.) pieces.
  • Weigh 100 grams of material and place on a paper plate or bag.
  • Stir sample and place in microwave oven on high heat for one minute. Reweigh and record weight.
  • Repeat step six until weight loss is less than one gram. This is the dry weight.
  • Calculation: wet wt. grams - dry wt. grams /100 = percent moisture

b) by Hand Method

  • Forage squeezed in hand Moisture %
  • Water easily squeezed out and material holds shape 80+
  • Water can just be squeezed out and material holds shape 75-80
  • Little or no water can be squeezed out but material holds shape 70-75
  • No water can be squeezed out and material falls apart slowly 60-70
  • No water can be squeezed out and material falls apart rapidly 60 or less

Facts about Goat Farming

Dry Matter Goat Requires

The dry matter intake is an important consideration since it reflects the capacity in terms of voluntary food intake to utilize the feed. With goats there appears to be distinct difference in intake between meat and dairy types. Meat goats have a dry matter intake of 3-4 percent of their live weight whereas dairy goats have a dry mater intake of 5-7 percent of their live weight.

Dry matter requirements as has been observed by ICAR for kids with 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 kg body and growing at the rate of 50g/day are 425, 600, 700, 800 and 950 g respectively. For maintenance of adult it seems to vary between 66 to 70 g/w. Variations observed might be due to the size of the species and density of the energy in the feed. However, DM intake of pregnant goat was found to be 2.96 kg/100kg body weight and 76.30 g/W.

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Facts about Goat Farming

Energy Goat Requires

Energy is vital component of goat diets affecting the utilization of other nutrients and overall productivity. The basic maintenance requirement for energy in goat diets is similar to the requirements for sheep. Additional energy is needed in the diet for increased activity, type of terrain, amount of vegetation on range, and distance traveled to get feed. Stall fed goats with minimum activity need a basic maintenance level in the diet. Light activity requires about 25% more energy. Goats on hilly, semiarid range land need an increase of about 50% above basic maintenance requirements. When vegetation is sparse and goats must travel long distances to graze, the energy requirement is about 75% above the basic maintenance requirements. Wool type goats viz., Angora, Gaddi and Pashmina goats require more energy in the diets after shearing, especially during cold weather.

Energy requirements can be made by good quality roughages in the diet, except for early weaned kids, for does during the last two months of gestation, and lactating dairy goats. Concentrate needs to be added in the diet to meet the energy requirements of these animals. Angora goats will respond to supplemental feeding of grains with higher production of mohair. Goats will also gain weight faster if more energy is provided in the diet.

Proteins Goat Requires

The basic requirement for protein in goat diets is similar to that of sheep and dairy cattle. A minimum level of 6% total protein needs to be provided otherwise feed intake will be reduced. This leads to deficiencies in both energy and protein, which results in reduced rumen activity and lowers the efficiency of feed utilization.

Additional protein is required in the diet for growth, pregnancy, lactation and mohair production. Goats on range need higher levels of protein in the diet than do stall fed goats because of the increased activity required to get feed. Adding concentrate to the ration will provide the additional protein needed. An excessive amount of protein in the diet of goats with light activity is also undesirable.

The most commonly used protein supplements are linseed meal, soya bean meal, brewers dried grains, and cotton seed meal. One of the most economical sources of protein is good quality Lucerne hay, fed as long hay, chopped or pellets.

Protein deficiency symptoms in goats are anorexia, loss of weight, poor hair growth, depressed milk yield and impaired reproduction. Severe deficiencies can lead to digestive disturbances, anemia and/or edema.

Minerals Goat Requires

Generally, feeds used in goat nutrition provide adequate quantities of the necessary minerals. In some instances, deficiencies may occur, specially of the major minerals. Of the macro minerals that have been shown to be supplemented in goats are salt, calcium, phosphorus and sulphur.

Sodium Chloride : Lactating does often require additional salt as milk contains high amounts of sodium.

Calcium : Must be added to the diets of lactating goats. Milk fever can occur when calcium levels in the blood drop.

Phosphorus : Deficiency may occur with goats grazing on range lands if the forage is deficient in this mineral.



Mastitis Enlarged hot, painful udder. Fever. Milk watery with flakes of blood. Improve hygiene. Application of antibiotics.
Foot Rot Lameness, Hoof will look as if it is rotten and it will smell bad. Signs of pain is seen if pressed. Trimming, soaking in bath of water with CuSo4
Brucellosis Abortion in late pregnancy. Retention of placenta and metritis. In buck’s infertility, orchitis and swollen joints are seen. Isolation of infected animals. Vaccination Blood testing and culling of positive animals.
Internal Parasites Loss of weight. Reduction in milk yield. Diarrhoea Anemia. Good quality food and clean water.  Proper medication.
External Parasites Restlessness, scratching, loss of weight, reduction in milk yield. Application of proper chemical as a dust, spray or a dip.
Poisoning Unsteadiness followed by dullness and unconsciousness.  Great pain and vomiting.  Convulsion and eventual death. Keeping goats away from poisonous plants and chemicals. Immediate treatment.
Bloat Distended abdomen on left side, respiratory difficulty, restlessness. A cup of mineral oil may bring relief. In acute cases removal of gas by making puncture is needed.

Vaccination Program

Months Vaccine Adult Goat Kids (above 6 months)
January Contagious pleura pneumonia (C.C.P.P.) 0.2 ml I/dermal 0.2 ml I/dermal
March - 5 ml S/c 2.5 ml S/c
April Goat Pox Scrach method Scrach method
May Entero toxaemia F.M.D. 5 ml S/c 2.5 ml S/c / 5 ml S/c
June Rinderpest 1 ml S/c 1 ml s/c
July Black Quarter 5 ml s/c 2.5 ml s/c
August F.M.D. 5 ml s/c 0.5 ml s/c
September Enterotoxemia 5 ml S/c 2.5 ml S/c

Why Goat Farming

Goat is a multi functional animal and plays a significant role in the economy and nutrition of landless, small and marginal farmers in the country. Goat rearing is an enterprise which has been practiced by a large section of population in rural areas. Goats can efficiently survive on available shrubs and trees in adverse harsh environment in low fertility lands where no other crop can be grown. In pastoral and agricultural subsistence societies in India, goats are kept as a source of additional income and as an insurance against disaster. Goats are also used in ceremonial feasting and for the payment of social dues.




Increasing Income of Goat Rearing Households

Through engaging in backyard goat rearing activity with a flock of about 3-5 to 5-10 goats, the households earn about INR 20,000-40,000 per annum.

This income can go up by 250 to 300 % with improved management practices and marketing linkages to reach a scale of 50,000 to 100,000 per household and even higher where the scope exists to improve herd size.

In regions where there is scope to increase the herd-size due to availability of CPRs, housing space, etc. the scope for impacting income is higher.

The traditional production system will be improved through activates focusing on ensuring access to required inputs for curative and preventive care, ensuring access to health services along with widespread dissemination of extension information and updated technologies for adoption of improved management practices.

These initiatives will address the issue of mortality and morbidity while improving quality of animal and productivity per animal. Improved market linkages will help to ensure better prices.


Empowering Women

Because of strong engagement of women in goat rearing, any investment in this sector is expected to have direct impact in uplifting the women economically as well as socially. Special focus will be on developing women oriented formal/informal grass-root institutions including SHG groups, FPOs, FPCs, cooperatives, etc. which will help to develop backward and forward linkages. Completing the activities in the goat sector with strong implementation of State Rural Livelihood will result in positive synergies towards meeting the vision objectives.

Commercial Goat Farms- Employment Opportunity for Rural Youth

Many educated rural youth have invested in commercial goat farms, which can potentially have positive externalities for the sector. The entrepreneurs who have pioneered organized farming can be engaged in knowledge transfer for the implementation of goat farming projects. Rural youth will potentially connect unorganized goat farmers to the organized processing sector.

Such linkages will pave the way for a change in perception regarding the sector from a “poor mans cow” to a “smart and green business option”. Concomitantly, expansion of income generating options in rural areas will also address the issue of rural migration.




Improving Meat Processing – Quality and Product Range

Quality of meat will be improved through emphasis on quality at all levels in the value chain.

  • Production stage, on developing quality animals through proper health care along with breed improvement
  • Market level: checking by veterinary officials
  • Traditional retail chain, ensure implementation of FSSAI regulations regarding licensing of meat shops.
  • Training of butchers on “Clean Meat Production Practices” by developing manuals in collaboration with leading ICAR institutions – National Research Center on Meat.
  • Role for municipalities in facilitating clean meat production.
  • Collaboration with financial institutions for investing in “Model Meat Retail Shop” with the necessary nfrastructure.

To address the issue of limited capacity of modem abattoirs, Ministry of Food Processing Industries had initiated a centrally sponsored scheme, National Mission on Food Processing for modernization of abattoirs. Proper implementation of this scheme will help to ensure quality for large-scale meat processing units and contributing to higher exports along with improving the range of processed products.


Improving Processing of Milk and Milk Products

Goat Milk production is 5605 thousand MT accounting for 3% of the milk production. Goat milk sector has not received much attention and the functioning of the chain is not well documented. Based on the existing information, goat milk is marketed to a small extent and largely through informal channel.

Recent initiatives on commercial goat farming and processing have focused on goat milk to capitalize on the nutritional value and market for high value processed products. Developing the sector will required focused efforts on up-gradation of milk breeds, support to commercial farms, encouraging entrepreneurs to invest in the sector through training programs on processing along with facilitating access to finance.

Processing of goat milk, especially goat cheese is popular in European countries. Since it is not a traditional activity in India, scientists at leading Food technology institutes can avail training in the leading countries in order to undertake capacity building of entrepreneurs in India.

Goat milk is widely recognized as having high nutritional properties. Goat cheese is globally a premium product. In the global market, demand for goat milk, and milk products like cheese, yoghurt far exceeds supply. In the current financial year (2017-18) imports of goat cheese was worth INR 156 million. Leading premium hotels and restaurants are sourcing cheese at INR 1000-2000 per kg.




Almost 100% of the feed and fodder requirements of Sheep and goats are through CPRs, which makes it a viable income generating option for the resource-poor livestock owners.

With increasing livestock population along with move to commercial agriculture and climate change issues, the dependence on CPRs is going to be more intense. The trends show decline in CPRs by 10% over the past 2 decades. There has been no specific focus on regenerating the deteriorating CPRs posing significant threat to future development of the sector.

According to discussion with experts, regeneration of CPRs, the holding capacity can go up by 100%. Regeneration of CPRs in nearby areas needs to be an important part of the initiatives for goats. Projects focusing on goat sector development can engage with gram panchayats to address issues related to land tenure rights in developing CPRs.

Along with regeneration of CPRs, production of specific crops used as feed/fodder for goats has to be improved. Availability of leafy material for feed/fodder can be improved through utilizing waste areas, using bunds for planting fodder crops, while increasing use of crop residue for feeding.

Though the emerging semi-commercial and commercial farms will adopt intensive production systems, the regeneration of CPRs is critical to support the livelihoods of small holders while ensuiring environment sustainability

Advantages of Goat rearing are

  • Goats have very few demands of housing and management. They hardly need separate housing and happily share their homes with their owners or their other livestock.
  • Goats can be raised by landless agricultural labourers, ladies and children because they can thrive well on variety of leaves, shrubs, bushes, kitchen waste etc.
  • Goats are capable of adapting to various agro-climatic conditions ranging from arid dry to cold arid to hot humid. They can be raised in plains, hilly tracts, sandy zones and at high altitudes.
  • Goat milk has higher buffering qualities, and this enhances its value for patients suffering from peptic ulcers, liver dysfunction, jaundice, biliary disorders and other digestive problems.
  • Due to small body size and docile nature, housing requirements and managemental problems with goats are less.
  • Goats are prolific breeders and achieve sexual maturity at the age of 10-12 months gestation period in goats is short and at the age of 16-17 months it starts giving milk. Twinning is common, and triplets and quadruplets are rare.
  • In drought prone areas risk of goat farming is very much less as compared to other livestock species.
  • Goat creates employment to the rural poor besides effectively utilizing unpaid family labour. There is ample scope for establishing cottage industries based on goat meat and milk products and value addition to skin and fibre.
  • Goat hide is used for the manufacture of leather products. Goat hairs are used for the manufacture of rugs and ropes.
  • Goat manure is 2.5 times richer in nitrogen and phosphoric acid than cow manure.

Our Happy Customers Testimonials


I am from Jajpur, Odisha. I bought 30 goats from Shivam Agro. Breed quality is very good and my experience with Shivam Agro is excellent.

Rout Subhankar

I bought 20 goats for Nagpur.

  • Pure Osmanabadi breed.
  • Quality meat.
  • Breeding capacityis high
  • Highly resistant from extreme weather condition.

Saurabh thakre

Too good and hygienic place and very well kept goats.

Vandit Vaishnav

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Shivam Agro Farm
402, Borigarka, Near Water Tank
Durg - Anda Road, Katro
District: Durg, State: Chhattisgarh
Pin Code: 491221
Contact Person : Sandeep Patel
Contact Number : 7000785881, 9827425062, 9303121613
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